A mountainous, semi-arid land, Iran, is located in the western part of the world’s largest continent, Asia. With an area of more than 1.648.195 square kilometers (the eighteen countries of the world due to area), Iran is among the countries of middle east. Almost 90 percent of Iran’s soil is situated in Iranian plateau.

With 2700 kilometers water border and 6031 kilometers land border, Iran shares borders in the northern part with Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Caspian Sea, from west with Turkey and Iraq, from east with Pakistan and Afghanistan and from south with Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

With more than 80 million populations, Iran hosts the vast quantity of ethnic groups including Turk, Kurd, Lor, Baluch as well as Qashqai, Mazani, Gilaki, Shahsoon, Lak and Taleshi. Following with Turkman and Arab, Iran enjoys from not only various ethnicity, but also dozens of different languages and dialects. Regarding languages in Iran, the vast majority of people speak Farsi, the official language and the native tongue of most of Iranians. Additionally, the mentioned ethnics speak with their own dialects, such as Gilaki, Turkish, Kurdish or etc.


As the most populated city of Iran and 24th most populated city in the world, Tehran is the capital of Iran. Meanwhile, it is recognized as a political, economic and industrial capital of Iran. This third most populated city in the middle east, has a population more than 8 million.


According to religion, Islam is the dominant religion, which about 90 percent are Muslim, Shiite, the official state religion, while almost 9 percent are Sunnis. The other minorities are Zoroastrians, Christians and Jewish that accounts for nearly 2 percent. These three religions have seats in the Islamic Council and are recognized in the constitution. In terms of climate, the remarkable part of Iran is covered with dry and desert and due to low rainfall, Iran is considered as arid and semi-arid country. However, the existence of numerous mountains and two outstanding mountain ranges, Alborz and Zagros besides some plains and green forests (HYRCANIAN forests that is UNESCO world heritage site), brings mild weather and somehow cold in some parts of Iran such as north, west and northwest. This climate diversity and geographic situation, make Iran a four-season country.